Udhiyah – Sacrifice Rulings

Udhiyah – Sacrifice
BISMILLAHIR-RAHMANIR-RAHIM


O Allah, bless our master Muhammad, who opened what was closed, who sealed what had gone before ; the helper of Truth by the Truth, the guide to Your straight path, and on his family, may this prayer be equal to his immense position and grandeur.
Udhiyah (sacrifice) is among the great rituals of Islam, which signify the Oneness of Allah, His Blessings, and Bounties. It reminds us the exemplary obedience of our father, Ibraheem (alaihi as-salaam), to His Lord and his great sacrifices to Him. Udhiyah encompasses much goodness and blessings and thus acquires a great deal of importance in the lives of Muslims.
“And for every nation We have appointed religious ceremonies, that they may mention the Name of Allah over the beast of cattle that He has given them for food. And your God is One God, so you must submit to Him Alone (in Islam)…” [Soorah al-Hajj (22): 34]

Udhiyah: Its meaning and definition
Udhiyah refers to the animal (camel, cattle, goat or sheep) that is sacrificed as an act of worship to Allah, during the period from after the Eid prayer on the Day of Nahr (Eid al-Adha) until the last day of Tashreeq (the 13th day of Dhul-Hijjah), with the intention of offering sacrifice. Allah says: “Say (O Muhammad (sallalahu alaihi wa-sallam)): ‘Verily, my prayer, my sacrifice, my living and my dying are for Allah, the Lord of the Aalameen (mankind, jinns and all that exists).” [Soorah al-An’aam (6): 162]

Is Udhiyah an Obligation?
Those who favor this opinion take the following as evidence: Allah says: “Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice (to Him only).” [Soorah al-Kawthar 108:2]
This verse is a command and a command implies obligation. It is also related in the Saheehayn (i.e. Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim) from Jundub (radhi allahu anhu), “The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “Whoever slaughtered his sacrifice before he prays, let him slaughter another one in its place, and whoever did not slaughter a sacrifice, let him do so in the name of Allah.” and: “Whoever can afford to offer a sacrifice but does not do so, let him not approach our place or prayer.” [Musnad Ahmad and Ibn Majah. (Saheeh) by al-Haakim (from Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu)).
The majority of the scholars uphold the second opinion, i.e. Udhiyah is a confirmed Sunnah (meaning Sunnah mu’akkadah) , and they state it Makrooh (disliked) to neglect this act of worship, if one has the capability to perform a sacrifice.
This opinion is based on the following Ahaadeeth. Jaabir (radhi allahu anhu), narrated: “I prayed on Eid al-Adha with the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam), and when he finished (the prayer), he was brought one ram, and he sacrificed it. He said: “In the Name of Allah, Allah is Most Great. This is on behalf of myself and any member of my Ummah who did not offer a sacrifice’’, and the Hadeeth reported by all the famous Muhadditheen apart from al-Bukharee that the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “Whoever among you wants to offer a sacrifice, let him not take anything from his hair or nails.” [Saheeh Muslim]

Each point of view has its evidence. It is safe for the one who is able to offer a sacrifice should not neglect to do so, because of what is involved in this act of reverence towards Allah, and making sure that one has nothing to be blamed for.

The Principle of Udhiyah:
The basic rule of Udhiyah is that sacrifice is required at an appointed time from one who is alive, on behalf on himself and on behalf of his household. He may also include in the reward all those whom he wishes, dead or alive.
It is from the virtues of Udhiyah that one animal is sufficient for one man and his family; he is not required to make separate sacrifices on behalf of every member (living or dead). Narrated Abu Ayyub: “At the time of Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam), a man would sacrifice a sheep on behalf of himself and the members of his household, and they would eat from it and give some to others.” [Sunan Ibn Majah]
With regards to Udhiyah of a deceased person, if he has bequeathed up to one third of his wealth for the purpose of sacrifice or included it in his waqf (endowment), then his wishes must be carried out. Otherwise, offering sacrifice on behalf of the deceased is a good deed and it is considered to be giving charity on behalf of the dead.

Animals prescribed for Udhiyah are camels, cattle, goat and sheep. With regards to sharing a sacrifice, then a camel or a cow can be shared by seven people, this is based on the narration of Jabir (radhi allahu anhu), who said: “The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) commanded us to share camels and cattle, each seven men sharing one animal.” [Saheeh Musli] If a sheep, a goat or a ram is offered for Udhiyah, then sharing is not allowed.
From the conditions of Udhiyah is that the animal offered for sacrifice must have reached the required age, which is one six months for a lamb, one year for a goat, two years for a cow and five years for a camel. The animal should be completely free of any faults because sacrifice is an act of worship and Allah is GOOD and He only accepts that which is good. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) “There are four that will not be accepted for sacrifice: a one-eyed animal whose defect is obvious, a sick animal whose sickness is obvious, a lame animal whose limp is obvious and an emaciated animal that has no marrow in its bones.” [(Ashabus-Sunan)
Milder defects do not disqualify an animal, but it is Makrooh to sacrifice such animals, for e.g. animal with a horn or ear missing, or an animal with slits in its ears, etc

It is forbidden to sell the animal chosen for sacrifice, except for a better exchange. If it gives birth to an offspring, the offspring must be sacrificed along with it. It is permissible to ride the animal. Narrated Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu), the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) saw a man leading his camel. He (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “Ride it.” The man replied: “It (the animal) is for sacrifice.” The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “Ride it.” A second or a third time.’’ [Saheeh Muslim]

Prescribed time for sacrifice:
The animal can be sacrificed after the Eid prayer and the Khutbah (not when the Khutbah or the prayer starts) until before the sunset of the last day of Tashreeq, which is 13th Dhul-Hijjah. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “Whoever sacrifices before the prayer, let him repeat it.” [Saheeh Muslim]
It is related from Ali (radhi allahu anhu): “The days of Nahr (sacrifice) are the day of al-Adha and the three days following it.”
Slaughtering the animal with one’s own hands is better, but if one does not do so, it is Mustahabb (liked, preferable) for him to be present at the time of slaughtering. Anas (radhi allahu anhu) reported that Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) sacrificed with his own hands, two horned rams with black markings, reciting the name of Allah and glorifying Him (saying BismiLLah Allahu-Akbar). He placed his foot on their sides (while sacrificing). [Saheeh Muslim]

Eating from one’s sacrifice is Mustahabb (liked, preferable). It is also Mustahabb for him, who performs Udhiyah, not to eat before he offers his sacrifice; he should break his fast with the meat of his sacrifice after the prayer. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam): “Let every man eat from his sacrifice’’.
Allah says ‘Then eat thereof and feed therewith the poor who have a very hard time.’ (Sura Hajj verse 28)
Buraidah (radhi allahu anhu) reported: “The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) would not go out on the day of breaking the fast (Eid al-Fitr) until he had eaten and on the day of sacrifice (Eid al Adha) he would not eat until he had returned [from Salaat]” This is related by at-Tirmidhee and Ibn Majah and also by Sunan Ad-Daaramee who added: “And he would eat from his sacrifice.”
Dividing the meat into three is Mustahabb (liked, preferable), one-third to keep for oneself, one-third to be given as gifts and one-third to be given in charity. This was the opinion of Ibn Mas’ood and Ibn Umar (radhi allahu anhuma)
Selling any part of the sacrificed animal is prohibited: Scholars agree that it is not permissible to sell anything from the sacrificed animal’s meat, skin or fat. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “Whoever sells the skin of his Udhiyah, there is no Udhiyah for him (i.e. his sacrifice is not counted).”
The butcher should not be given anything from the sacrifice, by way of reward or payment. Ali (radhi allahu anhu) said: “The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) commanded me to take care of the sacrifice and to give its meat, skin and raiment (covering used for protection) in charity, and not to give anything of it to the butcher as compensation. He said: ‘We will give him something from what we have.’ [Agreed upon]
“It is permissible to give the butcher something as a gift. It is also permissible to give some of it to a Kafir, if he is poor or a relative or a neighbor.

IF ONE INTENDS TO OFFER UDHIYAH, HE SHOULD NOT CUT HIS HAIR OR NAILS FROM THE BEGINNING OF DHUL HIJJA UNTIL HIS SACRIFCE IS SLAUGHTERED.
Umm Salamah (radhi allahu anha) related that the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “If you see the Hilaal (new moon) of Dhul-Hijjah, and any one of you wants to make a sacrifice, then he should not cut (anything) from his hair and his nails.” and in one narration he said: “…then he should not take (cut) anything from his hair, nor from his nails, until he performs the sacrifice.” [Saheeh Muslim]There is no harm in washing the head, or scratching it, even if some hairs may fall out.
Scholars mention that the wisdom behind this prohibition is so that he may resemble those in Ihraam in some aspects of the rituals and the one who sacrifice may draw nearer to Allah by offering his sacrifice. Allah says is Surah Al-Baqarah, “…and do not shave your heads until the Hadee (sacrifice) reaches the place of sacrifice…”
Allah knows best.
Allahumma Salli’Ala Sayyidina Muhammadnil Fatihi Lima Ughliqa wal Khatimi Lima Sabaqa Nasril Haqqi Bil Haqqi Wal Hadi Ila Siratikal Mustaqim wa ‘Ala Alihi Haqqa Qadrihi wa Miqdarihil Azim.

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Merits of the first 10 days of Dhul Hijjah, superiority and preferability of good deeds in these days.

BISMILLAHIR-RAHMANIR-RAHIM
Verily, the praise belongs to Allah Most High.
Allahumma Salli’Ala Sayyidina Muhammadnil Fatihi Lima Ughliqa wal Khatimi Lima Sabaqa Nasril Haqqi Bil Haqqi Wal Hadi Ila Siratikal Mustaqim wa ‘Ala Alihi Haqqa Qadrihi wa Miqdarihil Azim.
Al-Bukhari narrated from Ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him), that the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) said: “There are not any days in which righteous deeds done in them are more beloved to Allah than these days, i.e. the ten days (of Dhul-Hijjah). They said: O, Messenger of Allah, not even Struggling in the path of Allah(jihad)? He said: Not even Jihad in the path of Allah Most High, except if a man goes out (for Jihad in battlefield ) with his self and his wealth, then he doesn’t return with anything from that.”
Imam Ahmad narrated from Ibn Umar (May Allah be pleased with him), from the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) that he said: “There aren’t any days greater, nor any days in which deeds done in them are more beloved to Allah Most High, than these ten days (of Dhul-Hijjah). So, increase in them the saying of Tahleel (Laa-ilaaha-ill-Allah), and Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) and Tahmeed (al-hamdu-lillaah).”
The Types of Deeds in These Ten Days: (Wednesday Oct 17-Friday  Oct26)
First: The performance of Hajj and Umrah, and these are the best of deeds that may be done. And what indicates their superiority are a number of Hadiths, one of which is the saying of (The Prophet) (p.b.u.h.): “Performance of Umrah is an expiation of the sins committed between it and the previous Umrah, and the reward of the Hajj which is accepted by Allah Most High is nothing but Paradise.” (Bukhari and Muslim).
Second: Fasting during these days as many of them as may be easy (for one to fast) – especially the Day of Arafah. There is no doubt that the act of fasting is one of the best deeds, and it is from what Allah, Most High has chosen for himself, as in the Hadith Qudsi: “Fasting is for Me, and it is I who give reward for it. Verily, someone gives up his sexual passion, his food and his drink for my sake…” (Bukhari, Muslim, Malik, Tirmidhi, Nasaa’ee and Ibn Majah).
Also, from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree (May Allah be pleased with him), who said that the Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h.) said: “No servant (of Allah Most High) fasts one day in the way of Allah, except that Allah Most High removes his face from the fire because of it (the distance of traveling) seventy years.” (Bukhari and Muslim).
Imam Muslim narrated from Abu Qutaadah that the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) said: “Fasting the Day of Arafah will be credited with Allah by forgiving one’s sins of the previous year and the following year.”
Third: at-Takbeer (saying: Allahu-Akbar) and adh-Dhikr (remembrance of Allah, the Most High) in these (ten) days, because of the saying of Allah in Soorah al-Hajj verse 28: “…And mention the name of Allah on the appointed Days…”
This has been explained (by some) to mean the ten days (of Dhul-Hijjah), and the scholars consider it desirable to increase adh-Dhikr (remembrance of Allah Most High) in these days, because of the Hadith of Ibn Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated by Ahmad, which says in it: “…so increase in these days the Tahleel and Takbeer and Tahmeed.”
Al-Bukhari mentioned about Ibn Umar and Abu Hurayrah (May Allah be pleased with them) that the two of them used to go out to the market place during the ten days (of Dhul-Hijjah) saying ‘Allahu-Akbar’, causing the people to also say it.”
Ishaq narrates from the scholars of the Taabi’een that in these ten days they used to say: Allahu-Akbar, Allahu-Akbar; Laa-ilaaha-ill-Allah Wallaahu-Akbar, Allahu-Akbar; Wa-lillaahil-hamd.
It is a beloved act to raise the voice when saying the Takbeer in the markets, the houses, the streets, the Masjids and other places, because of the saying of Allah, the Most High in Soorah al-Hajj verse 37: “…that you may magnify Allah for His Guidance to you…”
It is permissible to make Dhikr  individually or in congregation
with all the different wording of Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar) and Tahmeed (al-hamdu-lillaah) and Tasbeeh (Subhaan-Allah), and the rest of the Islamic legislated supplications .
Fourth: at-Tawbah (repentance) and abstaining from disobedience and all types of sins, since forgiveness and mercy are the results of deeds. Disobedience is the cause of being far away (from Allah, the Most High) and repulsion, while obedience is the cause of being near (to Allah, the Most High) and His love. In the Hadith of Abu Hurayrah (May Allah be pleased with him), he said that the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) said: “Verily Allah has a sense of ‘Ghayrah’ (honor, prestige and anger over its violation), and Allah’s sense of Ghayrah is provoked when a person does that which Allah has made prohibited”. (Bukhari and Muslim).
Fifth: Doing plenty of voluntary (Nafl) righteous deeds of worship like prayer, charity, reciting Quran, commanding what is good and forbidding what is evil, and other deeds like this. Verily they are of those deeds which are multiplied in these days. Because, even those deeds which are less preferred, in these days are superior and more beloved to Allah than superior deeds done at other times.
Sixth: It is legislated and highly recommend  in these days to make at-Takbeer al-Mutlaq (unrestricted to specific times or form) at all times of night and day until the time of the Eid Prayer. Also, at-Takbeer al-Muqayyad (restricted to specific times and done in a particular manner) is legislated, and it is done after the (five) obligatory prayers which are performed in congregation. This begins from Dawn (Fajr) on the Day of Arafah (the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah) for those not performing Hajj, and from Noon (Dhuhr) on the Day of Sacrifice (10th of Dhul-Hijjah) for those performing Hajj (pilgrims); and it continues until Asr prayer on the last day of the days of Tashreeq (13th of Dhul-Hijjah).
Seventh: The slaughtering of a sacrificial animal (Oudhiyyah) is also legislated for the Day of Sacrifice (10th) and the Days of Tashreeq (11th, 12th and 13th). This is the Sunnah of our father Ibraheem (ALahis-Salam) – from when Allah, the Most High redeemed his son Ismahil (Alayhis-Salam) by the great sacrifice (of an animal in his place). It is authenticated that the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) slaughtered (sacrificed) two horned rams, black and white in color, and that he slaughtered them with his own hands, mentioned the name of Allah, the Most High (saying Bismillaah), said Takbeer (Allahu-Akbar), and placed his foot on their sides (while slaughtering them). (Bukhari and Muslim)
Eighth: Imam Muslim and others narrated from Umm Salamah (May Allah be pleased with her) that the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) said: “If you see the Hilaal (new moon) of Dhul-Hijjah, and any one of you wants to make a sacrifice, then he should not cut (anything) from his hair and his nails.” and in one narration he said: “…then he should not take (cut) anything from his hair, nor from his nails, until he performs the sacrifice.” Perhaps this is because of the similarity with the one who is bringing a sacrificial animal for slaughter (in Hajj). As Allah, the Most High said: “…and do not shave your heads until the Hadee (sacrifice) reaches the place of sacrifice…”
The apparent meaning of this prohibition is that it is particularly for the one whom the sacrifice is for, and does not include the wife or children, unless there is an individual sacrifice for one of them. There is no harm in washing the head, or scratching it, even if some hairs may fall out.
Ninth: It is incumbent for the Muslim (who is not making Hajj) to make every effort to perform the Eid Prayer wherever it is performed, and to be present for the Khutbah and benefit. He must know the wisdom behind the legislation of this Eid (celebration). It is a day of thankfulness and performing deeds of righteousness. So, he must not make it a day of wildness, pride and vanity. He should not make it a season of disobedience and increase in the forbidden things like men&women mingling on TV& music clubs, uncontrolled amusement, intoxicants and the like – those things which could cause the cancellation of the good deeds done in these ten days (of Dhul-Hijjah).
Tenth: After what has been mentioned, it is fitting that every Muslim, male and female, take advantage of these days by obeying Allah, the Most High, remembering Him, thanking Him, fulfilling all the obligatory duties, and staying far away from the prohibited things. He must take full advantage of this season, and the open display of Allah’s gifts to attain the pleasure of his Lord.
Surely, Allah, the Most High is the One who grants success, and He is the Guide to the Straight Path.
Allahumma Salli’Ala Sayyidina Muhammadinil Fatihi Lima Ughliqa wal Khatimi Lima Sabaqa
(O Allah, bless our master Muhammad, who opened what was closed, who sealed what had gone before;)
Nasril Haqqi Bil Haqqi Wal Hadi Ila Siratikal Mustaqim
( the helper of Truth by the Truth, the guide to Your straight path, and on his family, )
 wa ‘Ala Alihi Haqqa Qadrihi wa Miqdarihil Azim.
(may this prayer be equal to his  immense position and grandeur.)
Mouhamed Sakho Tidjani